Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 0088)

  • Number
    4575743
  • Other name
    (WS 0088)
  • Primary address

    126, Laycock Road Penshurst, 2222. NSW
    LGA: Kogarah
    LGA region: Sydney
    DUAP region: Sydney South

  • Alternate Address

    127, Penshurst Avenue Penshurst, 2222. NSW
    LGA: Kogarah
    LGA code: KOGA
    LGA region: Sydney
    DUAP region: Sydney South

  • Owner
    Sydney Water
  • Current use
    Reservoir.
  • Former use
    Reservoir.
  • Item type
    Built
  • Item group
    Utilities - Water
  • Item category
    Water Supply Reservoir/ Dam
  • Parcels

    Parcel code: LOT
    Lot number: 1
    Section number:
    Plan code: DP
    Plan number: 906312
    Updated: 17 February 2003

  • Curtilage/Boundary
    The curtilage is defined the boundary of Lot 1 of DP no.906312, as shown on the curtilage plan.
  • AMG easting
    323738209
  • AMG northing
    6239895297
  • Statement of significance
    Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88) is one of a small group of reinforced concrete reservoirs on concrete piers. It is the largest of its type in the Sydney Water Supply System. The Penshurst Reservoir site is significant for its important association with the development of the Metropolitan water supply system in Sydney, particularly in the early decades of the Upper Nepean Scheme. The site has been in continuous use for water supply since 1891. The whole site demonstrates the growth of the water supply system and progressive development in reservoir construction technology during this period. It contains remnant structures and foundations from the two earliest reservoirs on site and a 1890s Turncock's Cottage. The combination of the two reservoirs, one steel and one concrete, and their opposing structural support devices, is an unusual facet in reservoir design , and has a medium level of scientific significance. The pair are integral facets of the water supply network for Sydney.
  • Endorsed significance
    State
  • Circa
    No
  • Physical description
    Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88) is a large reinforced concrete reservoir, supported on a grid of reinforced concrete piers. Functional in appearance, the reservoir is stepped or tapered to the top with widened ribs at the base and rim of the reservoir itself. Standard features include: handrail in tubular steel, davit, access ladder, depth gauge board, inlet and outlet valve chambers. Unlike other similar reservoirs, including Wiley Park Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 19), Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88) does not possess a central tower and spiral staircase to the top of the reservoir. Full Service Level: 92 m. Capacity: 9 ML. The Penshurst Reservoir Site also includes the former Water Service Officer's Cottage, the concrete base of Penshurst Reservoir No.1, the brick stand for Penshurst Tank (1891), valves and pipework.(see listing for Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 87).
  • Modifications made
    The reservoir has been roofed to safeguard water quality (1977).
  • History
    In 1891 a cast iron elevated tank (0.09 ML) was constructed at Penshurst (only the brick stand still survives). It was supplied with Upper Nepean Scheme water by pumping station at Carlton. To augment supply, Penshurst Reservoir No.1 (riveted steel surface reservoir) was constructed in 1895. By 1910, further growth in demand was met with the construction of Penshurst Reservoir No.2 (Elevated) (WS 87), a riveted steel elevated reservoir (Penshurst Tank was removed in 1914, first to Campbelltown and in 1942 to Warragamba Township). The fourth reservoir, Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88), a large concrete elevated reservoir, was constructed in 1938. In the meantime, Lakemba Pumping Station took over supply for Penshurst in 1924, but also supplied Wiley Park and East Hills from 1930. Carlton Pumping Station continued in emergency service until decommissioned in 1939. In 1942 Penshurst was supplied with water via the Woronora Pipeline from the newly completed Woronora Dam. Thus commenced the only connection between Upper Nepean - Warragamba and Woronora water supply. Penshurst Reservoir No.1 was removed in 1951 and re-erected at Newport. With plans to extend the Woronora Pipeline to the Metropolitan System, a main was commenced in 1958 from Penshurst to Allawah. However by 1961, it was realised that instead of Woronora supplying Sydney, the opposite would be the case, with Warragamba water supplementing areas supplied by Woronora. This situation required further amplification of the mains between the City Tunnel at Ashfield and the Penshurst Reservoirs, including a new main from the City Tunnel to Allawah, pumped by a new pumping station in Canterbury Park, together with a pumping station at Allawah to pump water to Penshurst. Completion of this scheme in 1969 allowed Warragamba water to be fed into the Woronora Pipeline in sufficient quantity to assist in the supply of Sutherland, Cronulla and beyond.
  • National
    Settlement
  • State
    Utilities
  • Local
    Water Supply
  • Local description
    Relates to the planning, development, expansion and provision of water supply.
  • a) Historical
    The Penshurst Reservoir Site includes the Penshurst No.2 Reservoir that is one of a group of four (Ashfield, Bellevue Hill, Penshurst and Drummoyne) water supply service reservoirs, which together represent an important technological development in the use of reinforced concrete for reservoirs in NSW. The group of four elevated steel and reinforced concrete reservoirs is the first group of large (over 0.5 MI) water storage reservoirs built above ground level as part of the metropolitan water supply system. The creation of the Reservoir No.2, and the subsequent addition of the No.3, provide evidence of the extent of urban development in the serviced area at the times of construction of the two reservoirs. The two structures are illustrative of the growth of residential density of the local area and Sydney and the corresponding development of the water supply network over this period . Penshurst Reservoir and site, seen as a whole, demonstrates the rapid growth in demand for water in Sydney's southern suburbs as well as exhibiting a wide range of reservoir construction technology. It is the key site connecting Woronora and Warragamba water supply since 1942 and has been in continuous use for water supply since 1891, over 100 years. It is considered that Penshurst Reservoir and Site meets this criterion at the State level.
  • c) Aesthetic
    Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 87) and Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88) form a dramatic landmark on the skyline for the surrounding area. The visually and aesthetically dominant features of the Penshurst Reservoir and site are the two reservoir structures (No.2 and No.3). The Penshurst Reservoir No.2 and No.3 are relatively simple and functional creations, albeit designed with deliberate architectural stylisation. The unique composition that includes the Reservoirs No.2 and No.3 allows a comparison of the architectural and structural design of the two reservoirs, and presents an interesting quality on its own merit. It is considered that Penshurst Reservoir and Site as a whole meets this criterion at the State level.
  • e) Research
    This reservoir site demonstrates the broad range and variety of construction techniques for water storage reservoirs. Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 88) is one of a small group of reinforced concrete reservoirs on concrete piers. It is the largest of its type in the Sydney Water Supply System.
  • f) Rarity
    One of a small group of elevated concrete reservoirs on a concrete pier stand. The largest of its type in the Sydney Water Supply System.
  • List name
    Local Environmental Plan
  • Name
    Kogarah LEP 1998
  • Reference number
    14B Laycock Rd, Reservoirs and Pumping Station.
  • Gazette number
    143
  • Date listing listed
    01 January 1998
  • List name
    Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register
  • Date listing listed
    01 January 2000
  • List name
    National Trust of Australia register
  • Date listing listed
    01 January 2000
  • List name
    Heritage Act - State Heritage Register
  • Date listing listed
    18 November 1999
  • Title
    Conservation Plan for WS 19 at Wiley Park and WS 87 & 88 at Penshurst
  • Author
    Edward Higginbotham & Associates Pty Ltd
  • Published
    1993
  • Item reference number in study
  • Title
    Penshurst Reservoir Site Conservation Management Plan
  • Author
    Sydney Water
  • Published
    2004
  • Item reference number in study
  • WS 88.
    WS 88.
    Created by: Edward Higginbotham
    Creation date: 01 July 2000
  • WS 88.  Valves and pipework, joining Warragamba and Woronora water supply. Pipework and vlaves under repair.
    WS 88. Valves and pipework, joining Warragamba and Woronora water supply. Pipework and vlaves under repair.
    Created by: Edward Higginbotham
    Creation date: 01 July 2000
  • The physical curtilage plan for Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated)(WS0088).
    The physical curtilage plan for Penshurst Reservoir (Elevated)(WS0088).
    Created by: Sydney Water
    Creation date: 29 June 2006
  • Data entry status
    Basic
  • Entered
    18 December 2000
  • Updated
    05 December 2014