Waverley Reservoirs No.1 (Covered) (WS 0132)

  • Number
    4575736
  • Other name
    Stonehenge (WS 0132)
  • Primary address

    319, Paul Street Bondi Junction, 2022. NSW
    LGA: Waverley
    LGA region: Sydney
    DUAP region: Sydney South

  • Alternate Address

    320, Bondi Road Bondi Junction, 2022. NSW
    LGA: Waverley
    LGA code: WAVE
    LGA region: Sydney
    DUAP region: Sydney South

  • Owner
    Sydney Water
  • Current use
    Reservoir.
  • Former use
    Reservoir.
  • Item type
    Built
  • Item group
    Utilities - Water
  • Item category
    Water Supply Reservoir/ Dam
  • Parcels

    Parcel code: LOT
    Lot number: 1
    Section number:
    Plan code: DP
    Plan number: 1035985
    Updated: 17 February 2003

  • Curtilage/Boundary
    The curtilage includes the reservoir and is defined by the area shown on the curtilage plan.
  • AMG easting
    338785099
  • AMG northing
    6248176878
  • Statement of significance
    The Waverley Reservoirs Site is of historic, social and aesthetic significance. The Waverley Reservoirs Site demonstrates the progressive development of different construction techniques for reservoirs, the rapid growth of demand in the Sydney suburbs and the need for greater elevation in order to connect reticulation mains to the increasing development on higher elevations. Waverley Reservoir No. 1 is the last of four reservoirs (with Paddington Reservoir, Crown Street Reservoir, and Woollahra Reservoir), the latter two of which are still in owned by Sydney Water and in service, associated with the Botany Swamps scheme 1858-1886.
  • Endorsed significance
    State
  • Circa
    No
  • Physical description
    Waverley Reservoir No.1 (WS 132) is a circular concrete covered reservoir. It has a concrete floor and walls, though from the surface the upper part of the walls appear to be constructed of brick with a sandstone coping. The roof is covered with fill and grassed over. The cast iron ventilation caps and access chamber cover form a single line across the diameter of the roof and have given the reservoir its nickname of "Stonehenge". The cast iron ventilation caps are used on a number of other reservoirs, including Randwick Reservoir (WS 101) and Petersham Reservoir (WS 89). The recreational and open space usage of the roof of the reservoir is a historical and important feature of most covered reservoirs.
  • History
    Waverley Reservoir (Covered), nicknamed "Stonehenge" (WS 132), completed in 1887, was the last of four reservoirs built to augment the Botany Swamps Scheme (1858-1886). The other three reservoirs include: - Crown Street Reservoir (WS 34), 1859. - Paddington Reservoir, 1864 (disused and no longer owned by Sydney Water). - Woollahra Reservoir (WS 144), 1880. However Waverley Reservoir (WS 132) was not supplied solely by Botany Swamps water, because by 1886 the Hudson Scheme had come on line, supplying water from the Upper Nepean, prior to the completion of that scheme in 1888. Water was pumped from Woollahra Reservoir for the first six years of its service, then from Crown Street Reservoir in 1893. From 1927 onwards Waterloo Water Pumping Station took over supply of the reservoir. Waverley Reservoir (WS 132) was the highest of the reservoirs intended to be supplied by Botany Swamps. However it soon became apparent that additional height was required for reticulation purposes. This led to the construction of two elevated steel tanks in 1894 (now demolished). With increasing demand, these tanks were eventually superseded by the present Waverley Reservoir (Elevated) (WS 136) and Waverley Reservoir No.2 (Covered) (WS 133), both completed in 1917. Final augmentation of supply took place in 1938 with the construction of Waverley Reservoir No.3 (WS 134). The group of four reservoirs not only supply the Eastern Suburbs by gravitation, but also supply Bellevue Hill (WS 10) by pumping station. The Waverley Reservoir group not only demonstrates the dramatic increase in demand from 1887 through to 1938, but also the progression and development of reservoir construction techniques, rarely seen on any other Sydney Water site. The Reservoirs constructed at Waverley were augmented with major reservoirs constructed for eastern suburbs supply including Centennial Park No. 2 in 1925, North Bondi (Dover Heights) in 1929 and Waverley Reservoir No. 3 at Waverley Park in 1938. Reservoir No. 1 has been decommissioned, physically disconnected from the water system in 2003. It has not been in use for some 5 or more years prior with its valves closed and the reservoir empty. The Reservoir was decommissioned due to poor water turnover and water quality issues. Being of small storage capacity when compared to the other reservoirs it was deemed not warranted to resolve the recurring water quality issues. The major known built elements of the site are in situ. From available evidence is not known when the Victorian Tudor/Gothic central valve house (access house) of Waverley Reservoir No.1 was removed, however it appears in archival photographs in 1919 and in photographs during the construction of Waverley Reservoir No. 3 in 1936. On this spot now a mid century hatch and concrete chamber provides access to the Reservoir. The two elevated tanks constructed in 1894 were removed upon Waverley Reservoir No.2 and the Elevated Reservoir entering into service, c. 1917, although this was not immediate as they appear in photographs of the Elevated Reservoir in January 1919. Such temporary tanks were usually transferred to other sites when their present service became obsolete. The Elevated Reservoir and Reservoir No. 2 are in situ and have functioned continually since construction in 1917. It is not known when the throttle valve house associated with these reservoirs and appearing in photographs during the construction of Waverley Reservoir No. 3 was demolished.
  • National
    Settlement
  • State
    Utilities
  • Local
    Water Supply
  • Local description
    Relates to the planning, development, expansion and provision of water supply.
  • a) Historical
    Waverley Reservoir No.1 (Covered) (WS 132) is the last of four reservoirs associated with the Botany Swamps Scheme, 1858-1886. This reservoir and site demonstrates particularly well the amplification in demand due to growing population. Waverley Reservoir No. 1 (1885) and 2 (1917) are amongst a small group of covered Reservoirs in the Sydney Water system.
  • b) Association
    The Waverley Reservoir site has functioned to provide water storage since the earliest establishment of the eastern suburbs of Sydney. The Reservoir is likely to be esteemed by the local community as part of the Waverley Park although the special value of the Reservoirs as symbolic of civic progress is a less popular notion today. It is considered that the Reservoir meets this criterion at the local level.
  • c) Aesthetic
    The recreational and open space usage of the roof of Waverley Reservoir No. 1 is a historical and important feature of this and most other covered reservoirs.
  • e) Research
    The group of four reservoirs at Waverley demonstrates the progressive development of different construction techniques for reservoir and the need for greater elevation in order to connect reticulation mains to the higher suburban areas. All covered reservoirs are highly significant within the Sydney Water system, since all differ in construction technology, design and architectural detailing. All therefore contribute to our understanding of the development of covered reservoirs in NSW. Reservoir No. 1 meets the criterion for State significance in this regard.
  • f) Rarity
    One of a small group of large covered reservoirs in brick or concrete in the Sydney Water system, each demonstrating differences in construction, design and architectural detailing. It is one of only four reservoirs associated with the Botany Swamps supply.
  • g) Representative
    The Waverley Reservoirs Site is an essential element of the Eastern Suburbs Water Supply System. This function of the site in general is evidenced by all of the built elements, the four reservoirs, valve house and water pumping station in the setting of the Waverley Park. Operationally, all of the functioning mains, machinery and reservoirs, which are in commission, are of value. Collectively, the Reservoirs may be considered to represent the evolution of technology and design, the four reservoirs evidencing this progression on the one site. This also provides for comparative analysis with other sites containing groups of reservoirs which detail this technological and social progression (such as Penshurst and Wahroonga). The Reservoirs can be considered individually and the respective style of each reservoir compared to like examples in the Sydney Water System. In considering the whole site, the specific merits of individual built elements may also be assessed, and this assessment approach has seen the listing on the State Heritage Register of the oldest reservoir on site.
  • List name
    Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register
  • Date listing listed
    01 January 2000
  • List name
    National Trust of Australia register
  • Date listing listed
    01 January 2000
  • List name
    Heritage Act - State Heritage Register
  • Name
    Waverley Reservoir No.1
  • Reference number
    01353
  • Date listing listed
    18 November 1999
  • Title
    Waverley Reservoirs Site Conservation Management Plan
  • Author
    Sydney Water
  • Published
    2004
  • Item reference number in study
  • Stone capping over the top of WS 0132.
    Stone capping over the top of WS 0132.
    Created by: Sydney Water
    Creation date: 14 July 2004
  • View of roof showing circular reservoir WS 0132 below.
    View of roof showing circular reservoir WS 0132 below.
    Created by: Sydney Water
    Creation date: 14 July 2004
  • WS 132.  View across the roof of WS 132, with its sandstone coping course and brick side wall, towards WS 133 and WS 136.
    WS 132. View across the roof of WS 132, with its sandstone coping course and brick side wall, towards WS 133 and WS 136.
    Created by: Edward Higginbotham
    Creation date: 01 July 2000
  • WS 132. View of top of covered reservoir, from the corner of WS133, showing the sandstone coping and ventilation caps in a line across the roof of the reservoir. The ventilation shaft in the foreground belongs to WS 133.
    WS 132. View of top of covered reservoir, from the corner of WS133, showing the sandstone coping and ventilation caps in a line across the roof of the reservoir. The ventilation shaft in the foreground belongs to WS 133.
    Created by: Edward Higginbotham
    Creation date: 01 July 2000
  • The physical curtilage plan for Waverley Reservoir No.1 (Covered)(WS0132).
    The physical curtilage plan for Waverley Reservoir No.1 (Covered)(WS0132).
    Created by: Sydney Water
    Creation date: 14 July 2006
  • Data entry status
    Basic
  • Entered
    18 December 2000
  • Updated
    05 March 2014